LINKS

This section provides links to other independent work and references to interesting literature on GHG-removal.

Please note that our linking to these initiatives, organisations and publications does not imply any formal association between us, nor that they support the Earth Challenge. We nonetheless wanted to highlight and link to their efforts.

The Carbon Cycle:

  • The Global Carbon Project’s scientific goal is to develop a complete picture of the global carbon cycle [click here]

Cutting emissions:

Ways of extracting greenhouse gases from the atmosphere going forward must go with deeps cuts greenhouse gas emissions right now:

  • Help get emissions reduction activities to a gigatonne scale with the Carbon War Room, who’ve recently teamed up with the Rocky Mountain Institute  [click here]
  • In particular, if you’re interested in how better ways of cooling buildings can help cool the planet, check out the Global Cooling Prize in partnership with Conservation X Labs, Cept University and Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, and supported by the Government of India and Mission Innovation [click here]
  • Learn about climate change and solutions based on the most up-to-date science with the Climate Council [click here]
  • Read the reports and summaries by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [click here]
  • …and use this ‘Trillonth Tonne‘ clock by the University of Oxford as a reminder that yes, the clock is ticking  [click here]

…and while you’re at it:

  • Join the B Team in catalysing a better way of doing business, for the well-being of people and the planet. [click here]
  • Check out the work of Ocean Unite: making waves with definitive science and clear policy options point the way to what must be done to restore and protect marine life; [click here]
  • Follow the work of The Elders: an independent group of global leaders working together for peace and human rights. [click here]

Air Miners:

  • Air Miners is the index of companies and projects mining carbon from the air. They recently did an early run of planters made with CO2 extracted from the atmosphere: making some small, early, concrete steps towards climate-positive materials [click here]

Biodiversity for a Livable Climate:

  • Biodiversity for a Livable Climate is a grassroots movement whose goal is to contribute to planetary regeneration through research, education, collaboration and action to restore essential global biodiversity.  [click here]

Carbon 180:

  • Carbon180 is a new breed of climate-focused NGO on a mission to fundamentally rethink carbon. They partner with policymakers, scientists and businesses around the globe to develop policy, promote research, and advance solutions that transform carbon from a liability to an asset (a pollutant to a resource) and foster a prosperous, carbon-conscious economy that removes more from the atmosphere than we emit. [click here]

Carbon A List:

  • Carbon A List is on a mission accelerate the flow of money and awareness to novel innovations that can close the carbon cycle. [click here]

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Global Warming of 1.5 °C

  •  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide policymakers
    with regular scientific assessments concerning climate change, its implications and potential future
    risks, as well as to put forward adaptation and mitigation strategies. The IPCC has 195 member states.
  • Limiting global warming to 1.5ºC would require rapid, far reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society, the IPCC said in a new assessment, the full title of which is: ‘Global Warming of 1.5°C, an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty’.
  • With clear benefits to people and natural ecosystems, limiting global warming to 1.5ºC compared to 2ºC could go hand in hand with ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society [click here].

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda

  • Back in 2015, the National Academies published Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration, which described and initially assessed a range of carbon removal approaches.That report acknowledged the relative paucity of research on so-called ‘Negative Emissions Technologies’ (NETs); it also recommended development of a research agenda that covers all aspects of carbon removal: from fundamental science to full-scale deployment.
  • To address this need, in 2018 a new report: Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda assessed the benefits, risks, and “sustainable scale potential” for a range of different carbon removal techniques.
  • The report also defines the essential components of a research and development program, including estimated costs, and potential impact. [click here]

The Nature Conservancy: Natural Climate Solutions

  • Climate change is a global problem, and it requires solutions on a global scale. According to The Nature Conservancy, one of those is hiding in plain sight: the world’s lands provide an untapped opportunity – proven ways of both storing carbon and reducing carbon emissions in the world’s forests, grasslands and wetlands: ‘natural’ climate solutions. [click here]

Project Drawdown: The Most Comphrehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming

  • Project DRAWDOWN is a nonprofit organization. Made up of a coalition of scholars, scientists, entrepreneurs, and advocates from across the globe, Drawdown has produced the most comprehensive plan ever proposed to reverse global warming. [click here]

The Royal Society: Greenhouse Gas Removal

  • The Royal Society, in partnership with the Royal Academy of Engineering, has produced a report and associated summary to outline methods of greenhouse gas removal and how other influences like legislation, the environment, economics or social factors will affect their deployment.
  • The report also considers how they might plausibly be used in the UK and globally to meet climate goals. [click here]

REFERENCES

Carbon removal overviews/synthesis reports:

  • Caldecott, B., Lomax, G., Workman, M. (2015) Stranded Carbon Assets and Negative Emissions Technologies Working Paper, Stranded Assets Programme, Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford [click here]
  • Dorr, A. (2016) The impact pulse and restoration curves: Going beyond mitigation and stabilization, Anthropocene, Volume 16, December 2016, Pages 61–66 [click here]
  • Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.) (2014)  Climate Change 2014, Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. [click here] – see chapter 6
  • Fuss, S., Canadell, J.G., Peters, G.P., Tavoni, M., Andrew, R.M., Ciais, P., Jackson, R.B., Jones, C.D., Kraxner, F., Nakicenovic, N., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Sharifi, A., Smith, P. and Yamagata, Y. (2015) Betting on negative emissions,  Nature Climate Change, Volume:4, Pages:850–853, DOI:doi:10.1038/nclimate2392 [click here]
  • Gasser, T., Guivarch, C., Tachiiri, K., Jones, C. D., and Ciais, P. (2015) Negative emissions physically needed to keep global warming below 2°C, Nature Communications, Volume: 6, Article number: 7958 DOI:doi:10.1038/ncomms8958 [click here]
  • Hansen, J., Sato, M., Kharecha, P., von Schuckmann, K., Beerling, D. J., Cao, J., Marcott, S., Masson-Delmotte, V., Prather, M. J., Rohling, E. J., Shakun, J., Smith, P., Lacis, A., Russell, G., and Ruedy, R. (2017) Young people’s burden: requirement of negative CO2 emissions, Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 577-616, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-577-2017,[click here]
  • Honneger, M & Reiner, D. (2018) The political economy of negative emissions technologies: consequences for international policy design, Climate Policy, https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2017.1413322 [click here]
  • IPCC (2018) Summary for Policymakers. In: Global warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., Zhai, P., Pörtner H.O., Roberts, D., Skea, J., Shukla, P.R., Pirani, A., Moufouma-Okia, W., Péan C., Pidcock R., Connors, S., Matthews, J.B.R., Chen, Y., Zhou, X., Gomis, M.I., Lonnoy, E., Maycock, T., Tignor, M., Waterfield, T. (eds.)]. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 32 pp [click here].
  • Kriegler, E., Edenhofer, O., Reuster, L., Luderer, G. and Klein, D. (2013) Is atmospheric carbon dioxide removal a game changer for climate change mitigation? Climatic Change, 118: 45-57 [click here]
  • Larkin, A., Kuriakose, L., Sharmina, M., & Anderson, K. (2017) What if negative emission technologies fail at scale? Implications of the Paris Agreement for big emitting nations. Climate Policy. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2017.1346498 [click here]
  • Lomax, G., Lenton, T.M., Adeosun, A. and Workman, M. (2015) Investing in negative emissions, Nature Climate Change, Volume:5, Pages:498–500, DOI:doi:10.1038/nclimate2627 [click here] 
  • McLaren, D. (2012) Negatonnes – an Initial Assessment of the Potential for Negative Emissions Techniques to Contribute Safely and Fairly to Meeting Carbon Budgets in the 21st Century – a report by Duncan McLaren for Friends of the Earth [click here]
  • Meadowcroft, J. (2013) Exploring negative territory Carbon dioxide removal and climate policy initiatives, Climatic Change, 118: 137-149 [click here]
  • Milne, J.L. and Field, C.B. (2013) Assessment Report from the GCEP Workshop on Energy Supply with Negative Carbon Emissions, Stanford University [click here]
  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25259. [click here]
  • National Research Council. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015 [click here]
  • Obersteiner, M., Bednar, J.B., Wagner, F., Gasser G., Ciais P., Forsell N., Frank, S., Havlik, P., Valin, H., Janssens, I.A., Peñuelas. J.,  and Schmidt-Traub. G. (2018) How to spend a dwindling greenhouse gas budget, Nature Climate Change 8, 7–10, doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0045-1 [click here]
  • Peters, G & Geden, O (2017) Catalysing a political shift from low to negative carbon, Nature Climate Change, 7, 619–621(2017) doi:10.1038/nclimate3369 [click here]
  • Pinder, C. (2014) Below Zero: Carbon Removal and the Climate Challenge, The Climate Institute, March 2014 [click here]
  • Rockström, J., Gaffney, O., Rogelj, J., Meinshausen, M., Nakicenovic, N., Schellnhuber, H. J. (2017) A roadmap for rapid decarbonisation, Science, Vol. 355, Issue 6331, pp. 1269-1271, DOI: 10.1126/science.aah3443 [click here]
  • Royal Society (2018) Greenhouse Gas Removal [click here]
  • Smith, P., Davis, S.J., Creutzig, F., Fuss, S., Minx, J., Gabrielle, B., Kato, E., Jackson, R.B., Cowie, A., Kriegler, E., van Vuuren, D.P., Rogelj, J., Ciais, P., Milne, J., Canadell, McCollum, D., Peters, G., Andrew, R., Krey, V., Shrestha, G., Friedlingstein, P., Gasser, T., Grübler, A., Heidug, W.K., Jonas, M., Jones, C.D., Kraxner, F., Littleton, E., Lowe, J., Moreira, J.R., Nakicenovic, N., Obersteiner, M., Patwardhan, A., Rogner, M., Rubin, ED., Sharifi, A., Torvanger, A.,  Yamagata, Y., Edmonds, J. and Yongsung, C. (2015) Biophysical and economic limits to negative CO2 emissions, Nature Climate Change, DOI:doi:10.1038/nclimate2870 [click here]
  • Tavoni, M and Socolow, R. (2013) Modeling meets science and technology: an introduction to a special issue on negative emissions, Climatic Change, 118: 1-14 [click here]
  • van Vuuren, D.P., Deetman, S., van Vliet, J., van den Berg, M., van Ruijve, B.J. and Koebl, B. (2013) the role of negative CO2 emissions for reaching 2 °C—insights from integrated assessment modelling, Climatic Change, 118: 15-27 [click here]
  • UNEP (2017) The Emissions Gap Report 2017. A UN Environment Synthesis Report, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi [click here]
  • Williamson, P. (2016) Emissions reduction: Scrutinize CO2 removal methods, Nature, Vol. 530, Issue 7589, pages: 153–155 doi:10.1038/530153a [click here]
  • Xu, Y. and Ramanathan, V. (2017) Well below 2 °C: Mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes, PNAS, September 26, 2017, vol. 114, no. 39, 10315-10323, doi:10.1073/pnas.1618481114 [click here]

Biochar:

Cornell University and University of Edinburgh have world-leading biochar research programmes, with links to their publications. Check out the British Biochar Foundation, the International Biochar Initiative, and the US Biochar Initiative too.

  • The British Biochar Foundation [click here]
  • Biochar Soil Management – Cornell University [click here]
  • The European Biochar Research Network [click here]
  • The International Biochar Initiative [click here]
  • UK Biochar Research Centre – Edinburgh University [click here]
  • The Unites States Biochar Initiative [click here]
  • FertiPlus: co-funded by the European Commission, reducing mineral fertilisers and agro-chemicals by recycling treated organic waste compost and biochar [click here]
  • Biochar 101: a report by Dovetail Partners for the US Department of Agriculture [click here]
  • Woolf, D., Amonette, J.E., Street-Perrott, F.A., Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (2010) Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change, Nature Communications, doi: 10.1038/ncomms1053 [click here]

Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (“BECCS”):

  • Biomass with CO2 capture and storage (Bio-CCS) – European Technology Platform for Zero Emissions Power Plants [click here]
  • Edmonds, J., Luckow, P., Calvin, K., Wise, M., Dooley, J., Kyle, P., Kim, S.H., Patel, P. and Clarke, L. (2013) Can radiative forcing be limited to 2.6 Wm−2 without negative emissions from bioenergy AND CO2 capture and storage? Climatic Change, 118: 29-43 [click here]
  • Gough, C. and Upham, P. (2011) Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS or Bio-CCS), Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, Volume 1, Issue 4. DOI: 10.1002/ghg.34 [click here]
  • Powell, T.W.R. and Lenton, T. M. (2012), Future carbon dioxide removal via biomass energy constrained by agricultural efficiency and dietary trends, Energy and Environmental Science, DOI: 10.1039/c2ee21592f [click here]
  • Sanchez, D.L., Nelson, J.H., Johnston, J., Mileva, A. & Kammen, D. (2015), Biomass enables the transition to a carbon-negative power system across western North America, Nature Climate Change, 5, 230–234, doi:10.1038/nclimate2488 [click here]

Direct Air Capture (“DAC”):

The Center for Negative Carbon Emissions (CNCE) at Arizona State University is advancing carbon management technologies that can capture carbon dioxide directly from ambient air in an outdoor operating environment. Their aim is to demonstrate systems that over time increase in scope, complexity, reliability and efficiency while lowering the cost of carbon dioxide capture from air.

  • Arizona State University – Center for Negative Carbon Emissions [click here]
  • Center for Carbon Removal (2015) Carbon sequestration through direct air capture [click here]
  • ICEF (2018) Roadmap: Direct Air Capture of Carbon Dioxide (Draft for comment) [click here]
  • Keith, D.W., Holmes, G., St. Angelo, D., Heidel, K. (2018) A Process for Capturing COfrom the Atmosphere, Joule, vol 2, 1–22, August 15 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2018.05.006 [click here]
  • Keith, D.W. and Holmes, G., (2012) An air-liquid contactor for large-scale capture of CO2 from air, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2012) 370, 4380–4403 doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0137 [click here]
  • Marcucci, A., Kypreos, S. and Panos, E. (2017) The road to achieving the long-term Paris targets: energy transition and the role of direct air capture, Climatic Change, 144: 181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-2051-8 [click here]
  • Mazzotti, M., Baciocchi, R., Desmond, M.J. and Socolow, R.H. (2013) Direct air capture of CO2 with chemicals: optimization of a two-loop hydroxide carbonate system using a countercurrent air-liquid contactor, Climatic Change, 118: 119-135 [click here]
  • Socolow, R. et al. (2011) Direct Air Capture of CO2 with Chemicals: A Technology Assessment for the APS Panel on Public Affairs [click here]
  • Keith, D. W. and Holmes, G., (2011) Comments on the APS report on Direct Air Capture [click here]
  • Wurzbacher, J.A., Gebald, C., Piatkowski, N., and Steinfeld, A. (2012) Concurrent Separation of CO2 and H2O from Air by a Temperature-Vacuum Swing Adsorption/Desorption Cycle, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 9191−9198, dx.doi.org/10.1021/es301953k [click here]

 Enhanced Weathering:

  • Hartmann, J. West, J., Renforth, P., Köhler, P., De La Rocha, C., Wolf-Gladrow, D.A., Dürr, H., Scheffran, J. (2013): Enhanced Chemical Weathering as a Geoengineering Strategy to Reduce Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, a Nutrient Source and to Mitigate Ocean Acidification, Reviews of Geophysics, DOI: 10.1002/rog.20004: [click here]
  • Kelemen, P.B., Matter, J., Streit, E.E., Rudge, J.F., Curry, W.B., Blusztajn, J. (2011) Rates and Mechanisms of Mineral Carbonation in Peridotite: Natural Processes and Recipes for Enhanced, in situ CO2 Capture and Storage, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume: 39 p.93, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-092010-152509 [click here]
  • Köhler, P., Abrams, J. F., Völker, C., Hauck, J., & Wolf-Galdrow, D. A. (2013) Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 014009. [click here]
  • Köhler, P., Hartmann, J., & Wolf-Galdrow, D. A. (2010) Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science, 107 20228-20233 [click here]
  • Manning D.A.C., Renforth, P. (in press) Passive sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through coupled plant-mineral reactions. Environmental Science and Technology[click here]
  • Renforth, P. (2012) The potential of enhanced weathering in the UK. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 10 1-15. [click here]
  • SalekS.S., Kleerebezem R., Jonkers H.M., Witkamp G.J., van LoosdrechtM.C.M. (2013) Mineral CO2 sequestration by environmental biotechnological processes, Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 31, Issue 3, 139-146. [click here]
  • SalekS.S., Kleerebezem R., Jonkers H.M., Voncken J.H.L., van LoosdrechtM.C.M. (2012) Determining the impacts of fermentative bacteria on silicate minerals dissolution kinetics, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4590-2 [click here]
  • Schuiling, R.D. (2013) Farming nickel from non-ore deposits, combined with CO2  squestration, Natural Science, Volume 5, Number 4, April 2013 DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.54057 [click here]
  • Schuiling, R.D. (2012) Capturing CO2 from air. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas. 1200990109. [click here]
  • Schuiling, R.D. and de Boer, P.L. (2011) Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification, Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss., 2, 551-568, doi:10.5194/esdd-2-551-2011 [click here]
  • Schuiling, R.D. and Krijgsman, P. (2006) Enhanced weathering; an effective and cheap tool to sequester CO2 . Climatic Change, 74, nrs 1-3, p.349-354. [click here]
  • Taylor, L.L., Quirk, J., Thorley, R.M.S., Kharecha, P.A., Hansen, J., Ridgwell, A., Lomas, M.R., Banwart, S.A., and Beerling, D.J., (2016): Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification. Nature Clim. Change, 6, no. 4, 402-406, doi:10.1038/nclimate2882. [click here]
  • Washbourne, C-L., Renforth, P. Manning, D.A.C. (2012) Investigating carbonate formation in urban soils as a method for atmospheric carbon capture  and storage. Science of the total environment. 431, 166-175. [click here]

Land Management / Ecosystem Sequestration / Soil Carbon:

  • Center for Carbon Removal (2015) Carbon sequestration in the agriculture sector [click here]
  • Fargione, J.E., Bassett, S., Boucher, T., Bridgham, S.D., Conant, R.T., Cook-Patton, S.C., Ellis, P.W., Falcucci, A., Fourqurean, J.W., Gopalakrishna, T., Gu, H., Henderson, B., Hurteau, M.D., Kroeger, K.D., Lark, T.J., Leavitt, S.M., Lomax, G., McDonald, R.I., Megonigal, J.P., Miteva, D.A., Richardson, C.J., Sanderman, J., Shoch, D., Spawn, S.A., Veldman, J.W., Williams, C.A., Woodbury, P.B., Zganjar, C., Baranski, M., Elias, P., Houghton, R.A., Landis, E., McGlynn, E., Schlesinger, W.H., Siikamaki, J.V., Sutton-Grier, A.E., & Griscom, B.W: (2018): Natural climate solutions for the United States, Science Advances, 14 Nov 2018: Vol. 4, no. 11, eaat1869, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat1869 [click here]
  • Griscom, B. W., Adams, J., Ellis, P.W., Houghton, R. A., Lomax, G., Mitevad, D. A., Schlesinger, W. H., Shoch, D.,  Siikamäki, J.V., Smith, P., Woodbury, P., Zganjar, C., Blackman, A., Campari, J., Conant, R.T., Delgado, C., Elias, P., Gopalakrishna, T., Hamsik, M.R., Herrero, M., Kiesecker, J., Landis, E., Laestadius, L., Leavitt, S. M., Minnemeyer, S., Polasky, S., Potapov, P., Putz, F.E., Sanderman, J., Silvius, M., Wollenbergs, E., and Fargione, J. (2017) Natural Climate Solutions, PNAS, vol. 114, no. 44, 11645–11650doi: 10.1073/pnas.1710465114 [click here]
  • Reynaldo, V., Banwart, S., Black, H., Ingram, J., Joosten, H., Milne, E., Noellemeyer, E., and Baskin, Y. (2012) The Benefits of Soil Carbon, managing soils for multiple economic, societal and environmental benefits, UNEP Year Book 2012 [click here]
  • Sanderman, J,. Hengl, T., Fiske, G.J. (2017) Soil carbon debt of 12,000 years of human land use, PNAS 2017, 114 (36) 9575-9580; doi:10.1073/pnas.1706103114 [click here]
  • Schmitz, O.J., et al. (2014) Animating the carbon cycle. Ecosystems 17:344-359 [click here]
  • Schmitz, O. J. (2008) Effects of Predator Hunting Mode on Grassland Ecosystem Function. Science 319, 952 [click here]
  • Smith, L.J. and Torn, M.S. (2013) Ecological limits to terrestrial biological carbon dioxide removal, Climatic Change, 118: 89-103 [click here]
  • Stockmann, U., Adams, M.A., Crawford, J.W., Field, D.J., Henakaarchchi, N., Jenkins, M., Minasny, B., McBratney, A.B., de Remy de Courcelles, V., Singh, K., Wheeler, I., Abbott, L., Angers, D.A., Baldock, J., Bird, M., Brookes, P.C., Chenu, C., Jastrow, J.D., Lal, R., Lehmann, J., O’Donnell, A.G., Parton, W.J., Whitehead, D., Zimmermann, M. (2013) The knowns, known unknowns and unknowns of sequestration of soil organic carbon, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 164, 1 January 2013, Pages 80-99, ISSN 0167-8809, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.10.001. [click here]
  • Strickland, M. S., Hawlena, D., Reese, A., Bradford, M. A., Schmitz, O. J. (2013) Trophic cascade alters ecosystem carbon exchange. [click here]
  • Teague, W.R., Dowhower, S.L., Baker, S.A., Haile, N., DeLaune, P.B. and Conover, D.M. (2011) Grazing management impacts on vegetation, soil biota and soil chemical, physical and hydrological properties in tall grass prairie, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 141, Issues 3-4, May 2011, pages 310-322,  [click here]

Other GHG-removal proposals:

  • Vichi, M., Navarra, A., Fogli, P.G. (2013) Adjustment of the natural ocean carbon cycle to negative emission rates, Climatic Change, 118: 105-118 [click here]

Research initiatives that have included GHG-removal*

  • Bellamy, R., Chilvers, J., Vaughan, N.E. and Lenton, T.M. (2012): A review of climate geoengineering appraisals. WIREs Climate Change, 3, 597 – 615. [click here]
  • European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Geoengineering (EuTRACE) project [click here]
  • Forum for Climate Engineering Assessment (FCEA0 [click here]
  • Heyward, C. (2013): Situating and Abandoning Geoengineering: A Typology of Five Responses to Dangerous Climate Change. In: APSC 46 (01), pp. 23–27. DOI 10.1017/S1049096512001436 [click here]
  • Integrated Assessment of Geoengineering Proposals [click here]
  • Lenton, T.M., & Vaughan, N.E. (2009) The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5539-5561, 2009, doi:10.5194/acp-9-5539-2009 [click here]
  • Natural Environment Research Council (2016) Announcement of Opportunity: Greenhouse Gas Removal from the Atmosphere [click here]
  • The Oxford Geoengineering Programme [click here]
  • The Royal Society – Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty [click here]
  • The UK Government’s House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s report on the regulation of Geo-engineering [click here]

*please note that the Virgin Earth Challenge is only interested in ways of sustainably removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, other proposals discussed under the umbrella term of Geoengineering, like directly interfering with solar radiation budgets, are well beyond our scope. See our FAQs for more information.